## Combined $13\times2$-point analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large-Scale Structure: implications for the $S_8$-tension and neutrino mass constraints

We present cosmological constraints for the flat $\Lambda$CDM model, including the sum of neutrino masses, by performing a multi-probe analysis of a total of 13 tomographic auto- and cross-angular power spectra. This is achieved by combining, at map level, the latest primary CMB and CMB-lensing measurements from the Planck 2018 data release, as well as spectroscopic galaxy samples from BOSS DR12, and the latest Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS-1000) tomographic weak lensing shear data release... Our analysis includes auto- and cross-correlations as well as calibration parameters for all cosmological probes, thus providing a self-calibration of the combined data sets. We find a good fit (reduced $\chi^2$=1.7) for the combined probes with calibration parameters only moderately different from their nominal value, thus giving a possible interpretation of the tension between the early- and late-Universe probes. The resulting value for the structure growth parameter is $S_8 = 0.754 \pm 0.016$ (68\% CL). We also obtain a $\sim$2.3$\sigma$ constraint on the neutrino mass sum of $\sum m_\nu = 0.51^{+0.21}_{-0.24}$ eV (68\% CL), which is compatible with current particle physics limits. We perform several tests by fixing the neutrino mass sum to a low value, considering narrower priors on the multiplicative bias parameters for cosmic shear, and by fixing all calibration parameters to their expected values. These tests result in worse fits compared to our fiducial run, especially for the case when all calibration parameters are fixed. This latter test also yields a lower upper limit of the neutrino mass sum. We discuss how the interplay between the cosmological and calibration parameters impact the $S_8$-tension and the constraints on the neutrino mass sum. [abridged] read more

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