Deep Learning of DESI Mock Spectra to Find Damped Lyα Systems

3 Jan 2022  ·  Ben Wang, Jiaqi Zou, Zheng Cai, J. Xavier Prochaska, Zechang Sun, Jiani Ding, Andreu Font-Ribera, Alma Gonzalez, Hiram K. Herrera-Alcantar, Vid Irsic, Xiaojing Lin, David Brooks, Solène Chabanier, Roger de Belsunce, Nathalie Palanque-Delabrouille, Gregory Tarle, Zhimin Zhou ·

We have updated and applied a convolutional neural network (CNN) machine learning model to discover and characterize damped Ly$\alpha$ systems (DLAs) based on Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) mock spectra. We have optimized the training process and constructed a CNN model that yields a DLA classification accuracy above 99$\%$ for spectra which have signal-to-noise (S/N) above 5 per pixel. Classification accuracy is the rate of correct classifications. This accuracy remains above 97$\%$ for lower signal-to-noise (S/N) $\approx1$ spectra. This CNN model provides estimations for redshift and HI column density with standard deviations of 0.002 and 0.17 dex for spectra with S/N above 3 per pixel. Also, this DLA finder is able to identify overlapping DLAs and sub-DLAs. Further, the impact of different DLA catalogs on the measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) is investigated. The cosmological fitting parameter result for BAO has less than $0.61\%$ difference compared to analysis of the mock results with perfect knowledge of DLAs. This difference is lower than the statistical error for the first year estimated from the mock spectra: above $1.7\%$. We also compared the performance of CNN and Gaussian Process (GP) model. Our improved CNN model has moderately 14$\%$ higher purity and 7$\%$ higher completeness than an older version of GP code, for S/N $>$ 3. Both codes provide good DLA redshift estimates, but the GP produces a better column density estimate by $24\%$ less standard deviation. A credible DLA catalog for DESI main survey can be provided by combining these two algorithms.

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Astrophysics of Galaxies Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics