Design, pointing control, and on-sky performance of the mid-infrared vortex coronagraph for the VLT/NEAR experiment

15 Dec 2020  ·  A. -L. Maire, E. Huby, O. Absil, G. Zins, M. Kasper, C. Delacroix, S. Leveratto, M. Karlsson, G. Ruane, H. -U. Käufl, G. Orban de Xivry, P. Pathak, L. Pettazzi, P. Duhoux, J. Kolb, E. Pantin, A. J. Eldorado Riggs, R. Siebenmorgen, D. Mawet ·

Vortex coronagraphs have been shown to be a promising avenue for high-contrast imaging in the close-in environment of stars at thermal infrared (IR) wavelengths. They are included in the baseline design of METIS. To ensure good performance of these coronagraphs, a precise control of the centering of the star image in real time is needed. We previously developed and validated the quadrant analysis of coronagraphic images for tip-tilt sensing estimator (QACITS) pointing estimator to address this issue. While this approach is not wavelength-dependent in theory, it was never implemented for mid-IR observations, which leads to specific challenges and limitations. Here, we present the design of the mid-IR vortex coronagraph for the new Earths in the $\alpha$ Cen Region (NEAR) experiment with the VLT/VISIR instrument and assess the performance of the QACITS estimator for the centering control of the star image onto the vortex coronagraph. We use simulated data and on-sky data obtained with VLT/VISIR, which was recently upgraded for observations assisted by adaptive optics in the context of the NEAR experiment. We demonstrate that the QACITS-based correction loop is able to control the centering of the star image onto the NEAR vortex coronagraph with a stability down to $0.015 \lambda/D$ rms over 4h in good conditions. These results show that QACITS is a robust approach for precisely controlling in real time the centering of vortex coronagraphs for mid-IR observations.

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Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics