Early phases in the stellar and substellar formation and evolution: Infrared and submillimeter data in the Barnard 30 dark cloud

18 Dec 2017  ·  Barrado D., de Gregorio-Monsalvo I., Huélamo N., Morales-Calderón M., Bayo A., Palau A., Ruiz M. T., Rivière-Marichalar P., Bouy H., Morata O., Stauffer J. R., Eiroa C., Noriega-Crespo A. ·

The early evolutionary stage of brown dwarfs are not very well characterized, specially during the embedded phase. To gain insight into the dominant formation mechanism of very low-mass objects and brown dwarfs, we conducted deep observations at 870$\mu$m with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope... Our goal was to identify young sub-mm sources in the Barnard 30 dark cloud. We complemented these data with multi-wavelength observations from the optical to the far-IR and. As a result, we have identified 34 submm sources and a substantial number of possible and probable Barnard 30 members within each individual APEX/LABOCA beam. They can be classified in three distinct groups. First, 15 out of these 34 have a clear optical or IR counterpart to the submm peak and nine of them are potential proto-BDs candidates. Moreover, a substantial number of them could be multiple systems. A second group of 13 sources comprises candidate members with significant infrared excesses located away from the central submm emission. All of them include brown dwarf candidates, some displaying IR excess, but their association with submm emission is unclear. In addition, we have found six starless cores and, based on the total dust mass estimate, three might be pre-substellar (or pre-BDs) cores. Finally, the complete characterization of our APEX/LABOCA sources, focusing on those detected at 24 and/or 70 $\mu$m, indicates that in our sample of 34 submm sources there are, at least: two WTTs, four CTTs, five young stellar objects (YSOs), eight proto-BD candidates (with another three dubious cases), and one Very Low Luminosity object (VeLLO). read more

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Solar and Stellar Astrophysics Astrophysics of Galaxies