Element Abundances of Solar Energetic Particles and the Photosphere, the Corona, and the Solar Wind

21 Nov 2019  ·  Reames Donald V ·

From a turbulent history, the study of abundances of elements in solar energetic particles (SEPs) has grown into an extensive field that probes the solar corona and the physical processes of SEP acceleration and transport. Underlying SEPs are the abundances of the solar corona, which differ from photospheric abundances as a function of the first ionization potentials (FIPs) of the elements... The FIP-dependence of SEPs also differs from that of the solar wind; each has a different magnetic environment where low-FIP ions and high-FIP neutral atoms rise toward the corona. Two major sources generate SEPs: The small "impulsive" SEP events are associated with magnetic reconnection in solar jets that produce 1000-fold enhancements from H to Pb as a function of mass-to-charge ratio A/Q, and also 1000-fold enhancements in 3He/4He produced by resonant wave-particle interactions. In large "gradual" events, SEPs are accelerated at shock waves driven out from the Sun by wide, fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A/Q dependence of ion transport allows us to estimate Q and hence the source plasma temperature T. Weaker shock waves favor reacceleration of suprathermal ions accumulated from earlier impulsive SEP events, along with protons from the ambient plasma. In strong shocks the ambient plasma dominates. Ions from impulsive sources have T ~ 3 MK; those from ambient coronal plasma have T = 1 - 2 MK. These FIP- and A/Q-dependences explore complex new interactions in the corona and in SEP sources. read more

PDF Abstract
No code implementations yet. Submit your code now


Solar and Stellar Astrophysics Space Physics