Embedded Lensing Time Delays, the Fermat Potential, and the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect

13 Mar 2015  ·  Chen Bin, Kantowski Ronald, Dai Xinyu ·

We derive the Fermat potential for a spherically symmetric lens embedded in an FLRW cosmology and use it to investigate the late-time integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, i.e., secondary temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) caused by individual large scale clusters and voids. We present a simple analytical expression for the temperature fluctuation in the CMB across such a lens as a derivative of the lens' Fermat potential... This formalism is applicable to both linear and nonlinear density evolution scenarios, to arbitrarily large density contrasts, and to all open and closed background cosmologies. It is much simpler to use and makes the same predictions as conventional approaches. In this approach the total temperature fluctuation can be split into a time-delay part and an evolutionary part. Both parts must be included for cosmic structures that evolve and both can be equally important. We present very simple ISW models for cosmic voids and galaxy clusters to illustrate the ease of use of our formalism. We use the Fermat potentials of simple cosmic void models to compare predicted ISW effects with those recently extracted from WMAP and \emph{Planck} data by stacking large cosmic voids using the aperture photometry method. If voids in the local universe with large density contrasts are no longer evolving we find that the time delay contribution alone predicts values consistent with the measurements. However, we find that for voids still evolving linearly, the evolutionary contribution cancels a significant part of the time delay contribution and results in predicted signals that are much smaller than recently observed. read more

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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics