Energy Optimization in Extrasolar Planetary Systems: The Transition from Peas-in-a-Pod to Runaway Growth

25 Feb 2020 Adams Fred C. Batygin Konstantin Bloch Anthony M. Laughlin Gregory

Motivated by the trends found in the observed sample of extrasolar planets, this paper determines tidal equilibrium states for forming planetary systems --- subject to conservation of angular momentum, constant total mass, and fixed orbital spacing. In the low-mass limit, valid for superearth-class planets with masses of order $m_{\rm p}\sim10M_\oplus$, previous work showed that energy optimization leads to nearly equal mass planets, with circular orbits confined to a plane... (read more)

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