Gaseous dynamical friction under radiative feedback: do intermediate-mass black holes speed up or down?

19 Feb 2020  ·  Toyouchi Daisuke, Hosokawa Takashi, Sugimura Kazuyuki, Kuiper Rolf ·

Coalescence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) as a result of the migration toward galactic centers via dynamical friction may contribute to the formation of supermassive BHs. Here we reinvestigate the gaseous dynamical friction, which was claimed to be inefficient with radiative feedback from BHs in literature, by performing 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations that solve the flow structure in the vicinity of BHs... We consider a $10^4~M_\odot$ BH moving at the velocity $V_{\rm flow}$ through the homogeneous medium with metallicity $Z$ in the range of $0-0.1~Z_\odot$ and density $n_{\infty}$. We show that, if $n_{\infty} \lesssim 10^{6}~{\rm cm^{-3}}$ and $V_{\rm flow} \lesssim 60~{\rm km~s^{-1}}$, the BH is accelerated forward because of the gravitational pull from a dense shell ahead of an ionized bubble around the BH, regardless of the value of $Z$. If $n_{\infty} \gtrsim 10^{6}~{\rm cm^{-3}}$, however, our simulation shows the opposite result. The ionized bubble and associating shell temporarily appear, but immediately go downstream with significant ram pressure of the flow. They eventually converge into a massive downstream wake, which gravitationally drags the BH backward. The BH decelerates over the timescale of $\sim 0.01$~Myr, much shorter than the dynamical timescale in galactic disks. Our results suggest that IMBHs that encounter the dense clouds rapidly migrate toward galactic centers, where they possibly coalescence with others. read more

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Astrophysics of Galaxies