Kinetic simulation of nonrelativistic perpendicular shocks of young supernova remnants. IV. Electron heating

13 Aug 2020  ·  Bohdan Artem, Pohl Martin, Niemiec Jacek, Morris Paul, Matsumoto Yosuke, Amano Takanobu, Hoshino Masahiro ·

High Mach number collisionless shocks are found in planetary systems and supernova remnants (SNRs). Electrons are heated at these shocks to the temperature well above the Rankine-Hugoniot prediction... However processes responsible for electron heating are still not well understood. We use a set of large-scale Particle-In-Cell simulations of non-relativistic shocks in high Mach number regime to clarify the electron heating processes. The physics of these shocks is defined by ion reflection at the shock ramp. Further interaction of the reflected ions and the upstream plasma excites electrostatic Buneman and two-stream ion-ion Weibel instabilities. Electrons are heated via shock surfing acceleration, the shock potential, magnetic reconnection, stochastic Fermi scattering and the shock compression. The main contributor is the shock potential. Magnetic field lines are tangled due to the Weibel instability, which allows the parallel electron heating by the shock potential. The constrained model of the electron heating predicts the ion-to-electron temperature ratio within observed values at SNR shocks and in Saturn's bow shock. read more

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena Plasma Physics