Photometric redshifts for the Kilo-Degree Survey. Machine-learning analysis with artificial neural networks

13 Sep 2017  ·  M. Bilicki, H. Hoekstra, M. J. I. Brown, V. Amaro, C. Blake, S. Cavuoti, J. T. A. de Jong, C. Georgiou, H. Hildebrandt, C. Wolf, A. Amon, M. Brescia, S. Brough, M. V. Costa-Duarte, T. Erben, K. Glazebrook, A. Grado, C. Heymans, T. Jarrett, S. Joudaki, K. Kuijken, G. Longo, N. Napolitano, D. Parkinson, C. Vellucci, G. A. Verdoes Kleijn, L. Wang ·

We present a machine-learning photometric redshift analysis of the Kilo-Degree Survey Data Release 3, using two neural-network based techniques: ANNz2 and MLPQNA. Despite limited coverage of spectroscopic training sets, these ML codes provide photo-zs of quality comparable to, if not better than, those from the BPZ code, at least up to zphot<0.9 and r<23.5. At the bright end of r<20, where very complete spectroscopic data overlapping with KiDS are available, the performance of the ML photo-zs clearly surpasses that of BPZ, currently the primary photo-z method for KiDS. Using the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) spectroscopic survey as calibration, we furthermore study how photo-zs improve for bright sources when photometric parameters additional to magnitudes are included in the photo-z derivation, as well as when VIKING and WISE infrared bands are added. While the fiducial four-band ugri setup gives a photo-z bias $\delta z=-2e-4$ and scatter $\sigma_z<0.022$ at mean z = 0.23, combining magnitudes, colours, and galaxy sizes reduces the scatter by ~7% and the bias by an order of magnitude. Once the ugri and IR magnitudes are joined into 12-band photometry spanning up to 12 $\mu$, the scatter decreases by more than 10% over the fiducial case. Finally, using the 12 bands together with optical colours and linear sizes gives $\delta z<4e-5$ and $\sigma_z<0.019$. This paper also serves as a reference for two public photo-z catalogues accompanying KiDS DR3, both obtained using the ANNz2 code. The first one, of general purpose, includes all the 39 million KiDS sources with four-band ugri measurements in DR3. The second dataset, optimized for low-redshift studies such as galaxy-galaxy lensing, is limited to r<20, and provides photo-zs of much better quality than in the full-depth case thanks to incorporating optical magnitudes, colours, and sizes in the GAMA-calibrated photo-z derivation.

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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics Astrophysics of Galaxies Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics