Properties of the Molecular Cores of Low Luminosity Objects

23 Feb 2015  ·  Hsieh Tien-Hao, Lai Shih-Ping, Belloche Arnaud, Wyrowski Friedrich, Hung Chao-Ling ·

We present a survey toward 16 Low Luminosity Objects (LLOs with an internal luminosity, Lint, lower than 0.2 Lsun) with N2H+ (1-0), N2H+ (3-2), N2D+ (3-2), HCO+ (3-2) and HCN (3-2) using the Arizona Radio Observatory Kitt Peak 12m Telescope and Submillimeter Telescope. Our goal is to probe the nature of these faint protostars which are believed to be either very low mass or extremely young protostars... We find that the N2D+/N2H+ column density ratios of LLOs are similar to those of typical starless cores and Class 0 objects. The N2D+/N2H+ column density ratios are relatively high (> 0.05) for LLOs with kinetic temperatures less than 10 K in our sample. The distribution of N2H+ (1-0) line widths spreads between that of starless cores and young Class 0 objects. If we use the line width as a dynamic evolutionary indicator, LLOs are likely young Class 0 protostellar sources. We further use the optically thick tracers, HCO+ (3-2) and HCN (3-2), to probe the infall signatures of our targets. We derive the asymmetry parameters from both lines and estimate the infall velocities by fitting the HCO+ (3-2) spectra with two-layer models. As a result, we identify eight infall candidates based on the infall velocities and seven candidates have infall signatures supported by asymmetry parameters from at least one of HCO+ (3-2) and HCN (3-2). read more

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Astrophysics of Galaxies