Pulsational instability of pre-main sequence models from accreting protostars. I. Constraining the input physics for accretion with spectroscopic parameters and stellar pulsations

15 Jul 2021  ·  T. Steindl, K. Zwintz, T. G. Barnes, M. Muellner, E. I. Vorobyov ·

Context: The pre-main sequence evolution is often simplified by choosing classical initial models. These have large initial radii and sufficient uniform contraction to make them fully convective... Contrary to that, real stars are born as small protostellar seeds in collapsing molecular clouds and obtain their final mass by means of accretion. Aims: We aim to constrain the input physics of accretion on protostellar seeds with observed spectroscopic parameters and stellar pulsations of young stellar objects and pre-main sequence stars. Methods: We conducted a literature search for spectroscopic samples of young stellar objects and pre-main sequence stars including all previously known pulsators. The sample size of pulsating pre-main sequence stars is increased by analysing TESS observations and presenting discoveries in CoRoT data. We employ MESA and GYRE to calculate evolutionary tracks of accreting protostellar seeds in a constant accretion scenario, the subsequent pre-main sequence evolution, and their pulsation properties. The results are then compared with observations to constrain the input physics. Results: We discuss 16 formerly unknown pulsating pre-main sequence stars and candidates that are either of SPB, $\delta$ Scuti,$\gamma$ Doradus or $\delta$ Scuti - $\gamma$ Doradus hybrid type. We find that evolutionary tracks with a mass accretion rate of $5\times10^{-6} M_\odot/{\rm yr}$ and fraction of injected accretion energy of $\beta=0.1$ provide the best results in enveloping the spectroscopic parameters of pre-main sequence stars in a constant accretion scenario. The calculated instability regions constrain the atmospheric boundary conditions to Eddington Gray atmospheres; we discuss the future potential for additional constraints by instability regions that are dependent on radial order. We present a possible candidate for pulsations in M-type young stellar objects. read more

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Solar and Stellar Astrophysics