Sh2-138: Physical environment around a small cluster of massive stars

29 Sep 2015  ·  Baug T., Ojha D. K., Dewangan L. K., Ninan J. P., Bhatt B. C., Ghosh S. K., Mallick K. K. ·

We present a multi-wavelength study of the Sh2-138, a Galactic compact H II region. The data comprise of optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometric and spectroscopic observations from the 2-m Himalayan Chandra Telescope, radio observations from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), and archival data covering radio through NIR wavelengths... A total of 10 Class I and 54 Class II young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified in a 4'.6$\times$4'.6 area of the Sh2-138 region. Five compact ionized clumps, with four lacking of any optical or NIR counterparts, are identified using the 1280 MHz radio map, and correspond to sources with spectral type earlier than B0.5. Free-free emission spectral energy distribution fitting of the central compact H II region yields an electron density of ~2250$\pm$400 cm$^{-3}$. With the aid of a wide range of spectra, from 0.5-15 $\mu m$, the central brightest source - previously hypothesised to be the main ionizing source - is characterized as a Herbig Be type star. At large scale (15'$\times$15'), the Herschel images (70-500 $\mu m$) and the nearest neighbour analysis of YSOs suggest the formation of an isolated cluster at the junction of filaments. Furthermore, using a greybody fit to the dust spectrum, the cluster is found to be associated with the highest column density (~3$\times$10$^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$) and high temperature (~35 K) regime, as well as with the radio continuum emission. The mass of the central clump seen in the column density map is estimated to be ~3770 $M_\odot$. read more

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Solar and Stellar Astrophysics Astrophysics of Galaxies