The He I $λ$10830 $Å$ line as a probe of winds and accretion in young stars in Lupus and Upper Scorpius

5 Aug 2022  ·  J. Erkal, C. F. Manara, P. C. Schneider, M. Vincenzi, B. Nisini, D. Coffey, J. M. Alcalá, D. Fedele, S. Antoniucci ·

The He I 1 micron line is a high excitation line which allows us to probe the innermost regions of protostellar disks, and to trace both accreting and outflowing material. We use X-Shooter observations of a sample of 107 young stars in the Lupus (1-3 Myr) and Upper Scorpius (5-10 Myr) star-forming regions to search for correlations between the line properties, as well as the disk inclination and accretion luminosity. We identified eight distinct profile types in the sample. We fitted Gaussian curves to the line features to measure the maximum velocities traced in absorption, the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) of the line features, and the Gaussian area of the features. We compare the proportion of each profile type in our sample to previous studies in Taurus. We find significant variations between Taurus and Lupus in the proportion of P Cygni and inverse P Cygni profiles, and between Lupus and Upper Scorpius in the number of emission-only and combination profile types. We find that the blue-shifted absorption features appear less blue-shifted at disk inclinations close to edge-on, but no such trend with inclination is observed in sources with only red-shifted features. Higher accretion rates were observed in sources with strong blue-shifted features which, along with the changes in the proportions of each profile type observed in the two regions, indicates that younger sources may drive stronger jets or winds. Overall, we observe variations in the proportion of each profile type and in the line properties which indicates and evolution of accretion and ejection signatures over time, and with source properties. These results confirm past works and models of the He I line, but for a larger sample and for multiple star-forming regions. The work highlights the power of the He I line as a probe of the gas in the innermost regions of the disk.

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Solar and Stellar Astrophysics Astrophysics of Galaxies